Usually, you see a doctor whenever your illness lasts for more than 1 or 2 days. After interacting with you, your doctor recommends a few tests or screenings. And to get those tests or screenings done, you visit a pathology lab in Greater Noida or your locality. Have you ever tried to know what a pathology is, what a person is who conducts such tests, and types of pathology? Not yet, know all these today here.
What is pathology?
Pathology is the part of medical sciences. It refers to the study of a disease or injury causes and effects. Also, it refers to the general study of a disease and the incorporation of several medical practices and biology research fields. In the context of modern medical treatment, the term, pathology, has a narrowed meaning and refers to tests and processes that come under the contemporary medical field, general pathology.
General pathology is an area that consists of numerous distinct interrelated medical specialties to diagnose a disease. In it, experts analyse the cell, tissue, or bodily fluid samples. And a physician who practises pathology is a pathologist.
Types of pathology
Experts have divided the practice of pathology in modern medical treatment into several sub disciplines that link to the goals of medical practice and biological research. Here are main 4 types of pathology for your reference:
1. Anatomical pathology
Anatomic or anatomical pathology refers to a specialty that relates to the diagnosis of diseases on the basis of chemical, gross, immunologic, microscopic, or molecular examination or tissues, organs or the entire human body. It has several subfields as surgical pathology, forensic pathology, and cytopathology. Anatomical pathology is one of the 2 primary divisions of pathology in medical practice. Sometimes, some pathologists practice both anatomic and clinical pathology.
2. Clinical pathology
It is a medical specialty that links to the diagnosis of a disease on the basis of laboratory analysis of bodily fluids like urine, blood, and tissues. In the analysis, pathologists use the tools of clinical microbiology, chemistry, molecular pathology, and haematology.
Clinical pathologists know the administration of microscopic and visual tests and several tests of biophysical attributes of tissue samples. Sometimes clinical pathologists are referred to as laboratory medicine specialists who are normally doctors and pharmacists with PhD degrees.
3. Molecular pathology
It refers to the study and diagnosis of a disease via the examination of molecules within tissues, organs, or bodily fluids. By nature, it is multidisciplinary and has a link with some aspects of both anatomical pathology and clinical pathology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and proteomics.
Experts apply it in a more scientific context to study the development of genetic and molecular approach to the diagnosis and categorisation of human diseases. It also includes the validation and design of potential biomarkers for disease progression and treatment response.
Medical experts use molecular pathology usually in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and cancers. They use it to detect cancers like brainstem glioma, melanoma, and brain tumours. Techniques used in cancer detection are qPCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, multiplex PCR, molecular profiling of pathogens, in situ hybridization, and bacterial gene analysis. All these techniques are based on analysing RNA and DNA samples.
4. Oral and maxillofacial pathology
As per the American Dental Association, it is one of nine dental specialties. Sometimes it refers to a specialty in both dentistry and pathology. Oral pathologists need to do a 3-year postdoctoral training through an accredited program. The specialty links to the clinical management, diagnosis, and investigation of diseases that affect maxillofacial structures and oral cavity. In addition, it links to dental pathology.
As a patient or common man, you should have a general idea about pathology types. With it, you would have no confusion while having a screening or test during your treatment at a doctor’s clinic. And you can easily comprehend which pathology lab you need to go for a particular test or screening.